**The Model of Matter**

**Chapter 2 From Photons to Particles**

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**Abstract**

The hypothesis is forwarded that every individual sub-atomic particle is composed of a photon confined in such a manner that it makes two revolutions within its wavelength. It is shown how that gives rise to the known properties of particles and to some of their behaviour like the special relativity corrections.

**2.1 Introduction**

The visible universe is made up of five major components, protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and photons. Other particles are known to exist, such as anti-particles for protons, neutrons, electrons and neutrinos. Other forms of mass, such as dark matter to explain galaxy rotation, have been postulated but never detected. Similarly other forms of energy, such as dark energy have been postulated to explain what are considered anomalous type 1a supernovae intensities, but have never been detected. For this presentation we will build our universe using only particles that have been detected.

The previous chapter showed how photons existed because of the properties of empty space. Photons are energy. It is well known among the scientific community that mass and energy can be interchanged. When a particle and its anti-particle meet they annihilate each other and produce photons.

When a high-energy photon impinges upon a heavy nucleus, it generates a particle/anti-particle pair. It would thus be a reasonable assumption that particles and photons had the same constituents. The chapter 1 description of photons suggests they are fundamental particles with no sub constituents. They can only be separated into other photons. They were explained in terms of three space dimensions and time and don’t need any additional dimensions to explain any of their properties.

The ability of photons and particles to interchange leads to one major conclusion. Particles and photons must be made of the same material. Chapter 1 showed the fundamental nature of photons. The only conclusion possible is that particles are made of photons. That is reinforced by decades of searching using particle accelerators. No other stable particles have ever been detected. The following explores one scenario.

**2.2 The Model of Matter**

The physical model used in this study is that all matter is made up of photons of the appropriate frequency traveling in a circular path, making two revolutions within their wavelength (Williamson and van der Mark, 1997; Robinson, 2011). Such a structure allows the photon’s electric and magnetic fields to interlock and form a stable structure. That structure is illustrated in figure 2.1, in which A, B, C and D respectively show the front of a photon after it has travelled one quarter, one half, three quarters and a full wavelength respectively. In these and most future references to rotating photons, only the axis of the photon, the central line indicating the direction of travel, is shown for simplicity of presentation and to aid understanding. It should be remembered there is an electromagnetic field associated with this line. The upper images show the photon’s linear trajectory. The lower images show the circular trajectory. The colors are only used to illustrate the phases of the oscillation and not their position with respect to the axis.

The proposal is that all forms of matter, be they neutron, proton, electron, neutrino or any of the myriad of short lived elementary particles, are all variations of this structure. There is no other form of matter. When an object travels in a straight line, we all know it has linear momentum. When it travels in a circle it has angular momentum. Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit (1925, 1926) discovered that electrons had angular momentum equal to ½ ℏ associated with them. It is often just called a spin half particle. Since then physicists have discovered that all individual sub atomic particles also have the same ½ ℏ angular momentum, irrespective of their mass. Under this model, angular momentum is the mass of the particle travelling at the speed of light in a circle of radius equal to its wavelength divided by 4π.

**Figure 2.1** Schematic illustration of a photon making two revolutions within its wavelength.

That makes for one very powerful gyroscope. As shall be shown later, that gives electrons their reason to form pairs and give rise to chemical bonding and other properties. Their angular momentum is also a key to understanding the structure and properties of matter.

Later theoreticians introduced a quantum mechanics approach to the structure of matter. They found it difficult to visualize how a point particle, introduced to fit their mathematics, could have angular momentum. After all, angular momentum requires something to rotate and a point mass has nothing to rotate. So they changed the concept of angular momentum as originally proposed and replaced it with the concept of spin. They further postulated that spin was a peculiar quantum mechanics property for which there was no physical analogy.

That way they did not have to explain it. Because it is a smaller word and it is the word most commonly used in particle physics, the word spin will be used from herein. However please remember that spin is angular momentum, as understood by the rotation of a flywheel.

The starting point of this model is that the angular momentum or spin of every individual particle is ½ hbar. It is made up of the photon rotating at radius r =𝛌/4πand angular velocity ω = c/r = 4πc/𝛌.

*I**ω =**½**ℏ* *= h/4 π * (2.1

Multiplying equation 2.1 by** ****ω** and substituting **ω =** *c/r *= 4**π**c/λ gives

Iω^2 = h/4**π**.4**π**c/λ (2.2

which simplifies to

*mr^2.c^2/r^2* = *mc^2*= *hc/*λ = hv = E (2.3

That is how energy relates to mass through E = mc^2, as first forwarded by Einstein (1905, 1952). Energy is photons traveling in a straight line. Mass is the same photon traveling in a circle, turning round twice within its wavelength. The relationship between them is given y E = mc^2. A photon traveling in a circle is a matter particle, such as an electron, proton, neutron or neutrino. The same photon traveling in a straight line is an energy particle. That is the physics behind the most famous scientific equation. E = mc^2. It illustrates mass is “frozen” energy. In its linear form a photons travels at away at c. In this presentation, mass is the same photon, still traveling at c, but it stays in one place,going round in a circle twice within its wavelength. The conversion between mass and energy is the interchange between angular momentum, which is mass, to linear momentum, which is energy.

By unlocking the rotating photon’s angular momentum, it goes from traveling in the circular path, to one in which it travels in a straight line, releasing energy E = mc^2.

A photon of frequency ν has energy hν. This rotating photon mode does give a clear definition of mass m of a particle in terms of electromagnetic energy, namely

m = hν/c^2 and ν = mc^2/h (2.4

Because c = ν𝛌, equation 2.4 yields 𝛌 = h/mc. Using r = 𝛌/4π gives r = h/4πmc = hbar/2mc.

**The Relativistic Corrections**

Consider what happens to a particle under this model when it moves. Figure 2.4 A illustrates a hoop moving along its plane of rotation. Figure 24 B illustrates the same hoop moving along its axis of rotation, perpendicular to its plane of rotation. All other possible motions should be considered as a combination of those two. In this study, only the paths shown in figure 2.4 B in which the photon spirals helically through space, shall be considered. That requires each particle to instantly orient itself such that the direction of rotation of the photon would always be perpendicular to the direction of travel of the particle. If the predictions match observation, it is considered that is the way particles move.

As mentioned in chapter 1, photons cannot move sideways. The only way such a structure can move is to spiral a helical path. Figure 2.5 shows images of the rotating photon at rest, A, and moving, B. In all cases the situations i, ii and iii represent the rotating photon viewed end on, obliquely and parallel to the plane of rotation respectively. Figure 2.5 B ii travels in a helix. Viewed end on, as the particle approaches the observer, it is seen as a circle, as shown in figure 2.5 B i. Side on, see figure 2.5 B iii, it looks like a “saw tooth” wave, but is actually a helix, see figure 2.5 B ii.

……..

The front will still travel a distance *ct *in time *t*, given by

2πrv)^2 + (vt)^2 = (ct)^2 (2.6

where rv is the radius at velocity v. Equation 2.6 can be written as

(2**π**rv)^2 + (vt)^2 = (ct)^2 (2.7

( 2**π**r**0**)^2 (2**π**r**0**)^2

Since 2πr_{0}= ct, this simplifies to

(2πrv)^2 + (vt)^2 = 1 (2.8

(2πr0)^2 (ct)^2

for which one solution is

rv = r0 √(1 – v^2/c2) (2.9

In this rotating photon model, a particle will contract laterally as it moves, with the degree of lateral contraction being given by the relativistic correction factor.

**Figure 2.4** Schematic illustration of the motion of an oscillation moving in the directions parallel, A, and perpendicular, B, to the plane of the rotation of the electromagnetic oscillation.

**Figure 2.5**** ** Schematic illustration of the movement of the oscillation front for a particle at rest, A, and moving at velocity v, B, illustrated from end on, i, at an angle, ii and side on, iii. Note that B ii and B iii illustrate a helix.

Some Additional Comments

* That lays the foundations for the derivation of Einstein’s special relativity corrections for moving particles. Those corrections also show that the radius of individual particles decreases with increasing speed by the same correction factor. That enables electrons which have a significant radius at rest, to be detected as point particles when they are accelerated to high GeV or TeV velocities. The remainder of the chapter deals with properties such as electric charge and magnetic moment, spin, chirality and parity and why particles have their de Broglie wavelength and both exist in the one particle at the same time. It points out why charge is generated at the circumference of the rotating photon and is thus distributed in two dimensions at the circumference. The magnetic field is generated in the third dimension.*

* The special relativity corrections and matching particle properties gives a good indication of the correctness of this model. Even greater proof comes from particle/anti-particle annihilation and from particle accelerators, as given in chapter 4. Whenever an anti-particle annihilates a particle, it produces photons. There are no other residuals. *

*Even if quarks do exist, when an anti-proton annihilates a proton, only photons are produced. The simplest explanation is that the whole proton, including quarks if they exist, is made of photons. *

* The situation with particle accelerators is the same. Protons are accelerated to high energies, increasing their mass. When they are stopped, all the energy that was put in is released, turning back into photons. Even Higgs bosons, along with other bosons and particle / anti-particle pairs all decay to photons. That is the best experimental evidence that particles are confined photons. Rotating photons making two revolutions per wavelength gives the only physical confinement mechanism that matches observed particle properties. *

* The rest of the chapter deals with such properties as spin, charge, magnetic moment, parity, duality that are applicable to all particles.*

* The physical reason for photons to rotate is called electric charge. It is their rotation that generates charge and from that their magnetic moment. The charge is generated at the rotating photon’s centre of trajectory and only in the plane of rotation. It spreads away from that plane as the distance increases. Their magnetic moment is in the third dimension. Their charge is directly related to their spin of ½ ℏ. That is the reason why when particles are accelerated, their mass increases, their electric charge remains constant and the magnetic moment deceases. Unlock their angular momentum and the photons no longer have charge.*