Some Standard Model Problems
From atoms to local gravity, physicists have done a great job. They know that atoms are made up of light weight electrons traveling around nuclei made up of much heavier protons and neutrons and that photons are packets of electromagnetic energy that carry energy emitted by those structures.
When it comes to putting physical structures to those particles, they fail badly. Even their mathematics shows some colossal problems. Estimations of the measured energy density of the universe vary around 2 to 10 x 10^–10 Joules per cubic meter (J/m^3). Estimations of the energy density of nuclei and neutron stars vary around 10^34 J/m^3. Calculation for some quantum mechanical properties to be adequately described need a free space energy density of ≈ 10^110 J/m^3. That is a mere 10^120 difference between theoretical requirements and experiments; observation.
It is not much better at the large scale structure of the universe. Their model indicates that the the visible matter astronomers can see in the universe represents almost 0.4% of the universe. About ten time that amount is made up of cold gas and dust particles surrounding the galaxies. Those ratios have been observed experimentally. Their model suggests that amount of matter makes up 4% of the universe’s matter and energy.
They need six times as much “dark matter” to account for galaxy rotation and a further 18 times (74%) to account for what they consider are anomalous SNE1a intensity measurements they believe can only be caused by dark energy blowing the universe apart at an increasing rate. Despite decades of searching no sign of either has been detected. That would not be that bad if it was their only error. Their Big Bang theory has odds of only 1 : 10^60 that a universe could survive in any form after the event. So they require another 10^60 universes in a multiverse to explain our existence.
Those two differences must surely be the two largest differences between theory and observation in the history of anything, let alone science. Perhaps you can now understand why theoreticians are keen to move “beyond their standard models”. The following gives a couple of examples of how they are so wrong and shows simple explanations that are “beyond their standard models“.
Having said that, this author is only too willing to admit that between those extremes physicists have laid a good foundation for technologists to produce the wonderful technological world now available to us.
It still leaves some serious problems that must be addressed!
Some of these are listed below.
Chapter 12 Some Comparisons
The greatest differences between this presentation and the standard models come in the structure of individual sub atomic particles and the large scale structure of the universe. These will be briefly mentioned. First, consider the structure of individual particles. Table 12.1 lists the current status of the standard model. Of those 61 structures, the 36 quarks and 8 gluons have never been separately isolated and identified. Figure 12.1 shows their proposed interactions.
They should be compared with the rotating photon model presented herein. There is just one particle, the photon. It comes in four different forms, plane and circularly polarized and linear and rotating photons. Circularly polarized linear photons have angular momentum, ℏ, as the photon’s inertia revolves once every wavelength. They are called spin 1 particles.
Plane polarized photons do not have angular momentum and are classified as spin 0 particles. All rotating photons make two revolutions per wavelength, giving them angular momentum ½ ℏ. They are classified as spin ½ particles, or fermions. Rotating circularly polarized photons generate charged particles. Rotating plane polarized photons generate neutral particles. That gives the intrinsic spin 1 difference between a proton and a neutron. Figure 4.2 shows their much simpler format.
Spin 1 and spin 0 particles, as distinct from photons, are made of an even number of spin ½ particles. Like all particles that are not electron, proton, neutron or neutrino, they have short half lives. The so called elementary particles, muons and pions excluded, are not part of the structure of nucleons. Particles with spins greater than ½ ℏ are made of two or more rotating photons. They are produced when energy is added to nucleons, increasing their mass and slowing down their time frame. When stopped they shed the additional mass in numerous ways that have very little to do with the nucleon’s structure.
Figure 4.2 the relationship between particles under this rotating photon model of matter. In this model, the direction of rotation of the photon with respect to its magnetic field determines its charge polarity. An anti-particle is the same type of photon rotating in the opposite direction to its particle. Nucleons can transform between each other because they only have to slightly change the properties of their photons. How that occurs is presented in “How to Build a Universe Beyond the Standard Models”.
Figure 12.1 Fundamental particle interactions under the standard model.
Figure 4.2 The relationship between particles under the rotating photon model.
Another great difference is in the interpretation of is the structure of the universe and the interpretation of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The standard model, relying upon Einstein’s gravity field equations, indicates the universe started in a Big Bang. The background radiation is the left over of the expansion of space that stretched photons from the early universe. The variations are the ripples in space – time about which matter formed.
The Big Bang theory was accepted because there was no alternative to gravity’s inverse square law of attraction. The work presented in chapter 8 shows that space distortion is measured by photon redshift, z. That makes gravity weaker than inverse square law and gives the same prediction for the precession of Mercury’s perihelion. Chapter 12 points out why that demolishes the pillars of the Big Bang theory. It still leaves the need for an explanation of the comic microwave background radiation, a presentation of which is given in figure 12.4, reproduced in figure 12.4.
Chapter 12 gives many other alternative explanations to observations that give standard model practitioners some difficulties.