About the Book

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   There are two features of energy and matter, taught to us by particle physics, that cannot be dismissed.


Particle/anti-particle annihilation: When a particle meets its anti-particle the two annihilate each other, releasing energy in the form of photons of total energy E = mc^2.


Particle accelerator results: When particles are accelerated to high speeds and then suddenly stopped, they release an array of particles, anti-particles and photons. When these particles have reached a stable state and all the anti-particles have been annihilated, we are left with the original particles and photons. In its simplest format, particles plus photons (to accelerate them) gives complex reaction products plus photons when stopped. The complex reaction products decay to photons, leaving only the original particles plus photons.

   The only stable particles ever detected are photons, protons, electrons neutrons and neutrinos. All others decay to one or more of those five particles. The interchangeability between protons, electrons, neutrons and neutrinos leads to one inevitable conclusion. They are all composed of the one basic material: photons.  All other particles, muons, pions, W, Z and even the Higgs bosons, also all decay to one or more of those particles and photons.  

     How to Build a Universe Beyond the Standard Models shows the structure and properties of electrons, protons, neutrons and neutrinos will have when they are composed of confined photons. It provides a whole new way of looking at the universe that current standard models cannot match. It uses only three space dimensions and time, the four physical constants e, h, G and c = 1/√ε0µ0

      Any support for the existence of other particles must first show why they aren’t composed of photons by detecting stable residuals that are not photon based. After decades of searching, particle physicists have not found a single one!

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Understand the properties of photons and everything else falls into place!

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   It is well illustrated with hundreds of diagrams, simple equations and references.


   This is not standard model physics, string theory, a unified field theory, or anything complex. Fields are generated by particles. Think of it as a unified particle theory. Knowing the properties of particles, you can work out the properties of their fields.