A Brief Summary

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     Why would you want to know “How to Build a Universe” when we already live in one that exists? Well, because many people don’t understand much about it. Experimentalists and astronomers have done a marvellous job at observing the universe, from the smallest sub-atomic particles to the furthest parts of the universe that can be detected using modern telescopes. If you asked for an explanation of what was there and why, most experts would have great difficulty in explaining it.  

    In order to explain the how, what and why of the universe, it is easiest to start at the beginning and build it up, step by step. That is what “How to Build a Universe” is all about. It starts from universe zero, from absolutely nothing. Empty space. No particles, no fields. Nothing! A totally clean slate as some would say. From that it builds up a picture of the universe, particle by particle.

     “How to build a Universe” is well illustrated with hundreds of illustrations, simple equations and references.

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 C   Chapter 1  shows how free space supports the fundamental particles that are the building blocks of everything in the universe. They are photons. They are supported by the electric permittivity ε0 and magnetic permeability μ0 of free space – the properties of nothing. Four basic types are described, plane and circularly polarized in single and 

multiple oscillations. Diagrams and equations are given. Their wave  properties come from the oscillations of the electromagnetic fields. Their particle properties come from their limited extent. They are both a particle and a wave at the same time. The ability of ε0 and μto resist the passage of photons gives them inertia and hence mass. 

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      Chapter 2 suggests that the structure of ALL stable particles are a photon of the appropriate wavelength making two revolutions within its wavelength. “Elementary” (sub nucleon) particles and all non photon bosons, consist of one or more photons making similar revolutions. It is that model that gives each particle its properties. Each individual particle has a radius r = λ/4π and angular velocity ω= c/r = 4πc/λ. Measurements show that each individual particle has an angular momentum Iω = ½  ℏ. Multiplying both sides by ω and simplifying gives E = mc^2. In this model, energy is photons traveling at cin a straight line. Mass is the same photon making two revolutions within its wavelength while still traveling at c. It is that rotation that gives individual particles angular momentum. 

That rotation and the constant speed of light means they are automatically subjected to Einstein’s special relativity corrections when moving against another reference frame. Angular momentum is now called spin. It only has two values, +1 or -1 (x ½  ℏ). Other descriptions such up and down are often used. Opposing spins are just other “side of the page” viewing of the same particle. Electric charge is directly related to a particle’s angular momentum. The polarity of the electric charge depends upon the direction the photon rotates compared to the magnetic field it generates. Anti-particles are mirror images of particles. Each particle automatically has both its particle and de Broglie wave properties at the same time. 

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   Chapter 3 presents the structure and some properties of electrons, protons, neutrons and neutrinos, the only long-term stable particles. It shows how they have properties such as mass, spin, charge, magnetic moment, duality and more. From their structure it shows why many of their properties are quantized. The electron’s mass gives it a rest radius of ≈ 193 fm. Chapter 2’s derivation of Einstein’s special relativity corrections showed that the radius of a particle moving at high speed would diminish according to the same correction factor. 

     This model predicts that high energy electrons will be detected as point particles. That has been observed. Three independent observations suggest that neutrino’s have a rest mass of ≈ 0.0004 eV/c^2. That allows them to travel tens of thousands of light years or parsecs from a super nova and arrive at Earth within a second or two of photons from the same event. They have other interesting properties.

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   Chapter 4 gives a brief introduction to the origins, structure, properties and role of the myriad of sub-nucleon particles discovered from particle accelerators. Particles moving at high speeds have their time reference frame slowed down and their mass increased. When stopped, their properties are no longer in equilibrium with their new reference frame. They have to get rid of the excess mass. The process of getting rid of that mass generates the “elementary” particles.

     The properties of the nucleons makes it easy to generate a shower of muons and pions along with linear photons and particle-anti-particle pairs. Muons and pions exist in stable nucleons. Electrons and neutrinos can be induced into/out of them. All other detected particles are induced into them by the addition of energy when they are accelerated. All will decay back to electromagnetic energy and the original particle, often cascading through different masses. No other stable particles have ever been detected. Going to higher voltages will not generate any other stable particles. 

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     Chapter 5 puts neutrons and protons together to form nuclei.  It shows how individual nucleons arrange themselves in particular lattice structures in layers of strongly bound nuclei that are held together by a weaker force. It shows the nature of those forces and why they have such a limited range. The base structure is an alpha particle “diamond” within which protons are as far away from each other as possible. Different isotopes are caused by different neutron lattice positions being empty or filled. It gives sufficient detail that many people with a reasonable interest could determine the structure and some properties of any nucleus of any A and Z and get a close match with observation.

    It answers many unknowns in nuclear physics. The origins of the “skin effect”. Why 4He has the highest charge density, while its neighbor 6Li has the lowest. 208Pb, and/or 209Bi are the highest stable Z and A nuclei. It shows why A = 5 and 8 can only ever be short lived nuclei. Stable nucleons orient their spins so that magnetic binding within the nucleus is strongest. The spin or angular momentum of a nucleus is the sum of the spins of individual nucleons. Nuclei do not rotate. Alpha particle structures are almost everywhere within nuclei with Z and A greater than 3. And so much more.

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     Chapter 6 outlines how the protons can be fused into lower A and Z nuclei in the sun and stars to form higher A and Z nuclei.  The physics behind the semi-quantitative calculations is given. The match is quite reasonable over some 10 orders of magnitude. It shows why Li, Be and B have such low abundances in stars, compared to their abundances in cosmic rays. It makes useful reading for all working with fusion. That gives us all the nuclei in the universe.

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     Chapter 7 puts electrons around the nuclei. It shows how the first four electrons are added around the first twenty-four nuclei. Interested parties can fill in the rest. The approach is similar to that used by chemists and others. The difference is that this approach shows why electron “orbits” are quantized using nothing more than classical (Newton and Maxwell) mechanics and Planck’s and Rydberg’s constants. It doesn’t need quantized orbits to prevent electrons from falling into the 

nucleus. They are simply too large to fit and most nuclei don’t have an energy state to accept them. Electron energy states are quantized because there are only a limited number of protons in a nucleus and their effects are screened out by inner electrons. The reason for electrons pairing is because they are powerful gyroscopes and need another electron with which to exchange angular momentum and move other than in a straight line. That is the foundation of all chemical bonding.

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     That gives all the building materials of the universe. Standard models of biology, botany, chemistry, geology and other disciplines give a good explanation of observation up to the night sky visible with the unaided eye. An obvious feature about the universe is that it is held together by gravity. Newton’s classical gravity and Einstein’s relativistic gravity theories are the best theories for explaining gravity. The next four chapters deal with descriptions and effects of gravity.

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    Chapter 8 shows that Newtonian gravity and properties of free space automatically lead to Einstein’s gravity field equation effects from his general relativity theory. The calculations match Einstein’s, are much simpler to perform and can be expanded beyond his calculations. People who have a reasonable understanding of Newtonian mechanics can make some calculation involving general relativity’s gravitational field effects. They are obtained by adding space distortion, which is redshift, z, and time distortion, 1/z, to Newton’s calculations. 

     Those calculations pick up something that Newton worked out but that Einstein missed. As the mass gets larger, gravity becomes weaker than inverse-square. Interested parties are referred to Newton’s Proposition 45 in volume 1 of his Principia. 

    That establishes a foundation for classical gravity and the properties of free space to establish the rules of gravity that can explain almost everything up to the structure of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, except their more rapid rotation than expected under either gravity theory.

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     Chapter 9 suggests two possible reasons for galaxies to rotate faster than expected under either Newton’s or Einstein’s theories. Reference is made to a paper in which the Newtonian gravity effect of individual stars upon other individual stars is considered. It differs from the standard approach of using Kepler’s law and assuming all the inner star masses were concentrated at the centre. I have not checked its accuracy. This approach presents a model in which a galaxy’s magnetic field separates the positive cosmic rays, predominantly protons, from electrons. A positive charge accumulation occurs in galactic centers, leaving a negative charge at the outer galactic regions. The effect of such an inverse square law attraction would be difficult to distinguish from gravity’s inverse square law of attraction. Along the way it explains some other stellar and galactic observations. It is suggested that other properties can explain the more rapid  galactic rotation without the need for any other unknown particles often called “dark matter”.

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     Chapter 10 applies the redshift correction to the inverse square law of gravity, as determined in chapter 8, to the attraction between galaxies at great distances from each other. It showed that the gravitational attraction between objects varies as the inverse square of r(1 +z) and not just r. It is that which predicts Mercury’s perihelion precession as 42.99 arc sec per century, compared to Einstein’s prediction of 42.98 arc sec per century. It shows that gravity becomes weaker than inverse square law as the mass of the universe increases. An infinite steady state universe will not collapse because gravity weakens with photon redshift. The observed redshift is not due to receding galaxies. It is due to the sheer mass of the universe causing the photon’s redshift and a  weakening of gravity. It differs from “tired light” explanations of redshift because it comes complete with a reduction in frequency, i.e., time dilation, to match observation. Equations are given to allow distances to be calculated from the observed redshift. Matching the Hubble redshift versus distant requires the universe to have a non uniform “medium scale” density. It leaves plenty of opportunity to expand this study.

 

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      Chapter 11 gives a summary of the similarities of the properties of gravity under this model, which is after all a combination of Newton’s and Einstein’s models. It indicates the only property of the vast emptiness of space-time that mass can distort as it produce gravity. That prediction is supported by observation, even if not by standard model theories. 

It gives a brief description of the continuity of space-time between the smallest sub atomic particles to great cosmic distances. It suggests that individual particles create local “ripples” in space-time but those ripples disappear when the particle moves away from it. The result is a slow space-time distortion giving rise to, or caused by, gravity. 

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      Chapter 12 gives the briefest comparison of how aspects of the standard models for the structure of matter and the large scale structure of the universe “stack up” against this model. For example, the standard model describes photons, electrons and neutrinos as point particles with properties attached mathematically. This model presents their structure that gives them their properties. This model uses three space dimensions and time to explain observations. The standard model uses great mathematical complexity over sixty particles, some like quarks and gluons that have never been detected, to explain its predictions. 

   It imposes Einstein’s relativity correction without giving an explanation of their origins. This model uses known photons and gives them a “twist”, using that to match observation with simple explanations. It further re-inforces that quantum properties are a natural consequence of this model of photons and matter, not something that needs postulates to support it.

  

     The “pillars” of the Big Bang theory that were previously unexplained under steady state models have been demolished. This presentation shows how this steady state model of the universe gives a better match with observation than does the Big Bang and expanding universe model.

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  Chapter 13  makes a brief mention of why it is necessary to move on from the standard model. It has an over reliance on mathematics and concepts such as quarks and gluons that have never been separately detected and identified. With such factors as Einstein’s gravitational field equations from his general relativity theory, it seems that those who use his equations have not read or understood the implications of the approximations he admitted he used when he developed his field equations. 

The accepted Schwarzschild metric is an exact solution to an approximation. That doesn’t mean extending it to predict black holes is an exact prediction to Einstein’s work on gravity. It is only a mathematical solution to an approximation. An exact solution to the physical situation was given in chapter 8. It does not predict black holes. All experimentalists measured were the presence of massive objects. It was theoreticians who labeled them “black holes”.

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     How to Build a Universe Beyond The Standard Models doesn’t need much more than a good high school grounding in Newtonian mechanics and early university knowledge of Maxwell’s equations and calculus. It does require a good knowledge of common sense. Its simplicities enable it to get answers beyond the complexities of the standard models.  Everything is presented in a simple yet accurate manner. It is written at a level where “intelligent novices” and “seasoned professionals” will both benefit from its contents.

     This is not standard model physics. Standard model physicists may have theoretical objections to many aspects of this work. That does not make this work wrong. Lack of agreement with observation makes theories wrong. It is highly recommended that sceptics, standard model physicists or otherwise, continue to read past any clumsy wording and/or theoretical objections they may have and see just how much this presentation matches observation. For example, Einstein used his gravitational field equations to predict that Mercury’s anomalous perihelion precession was 42.98 arc sec per century. Chapter 8 provides an alternative derivation, giving 42.99 arc sec per century. That is considered a good match. It also suggests there are limits to the use of field equations to determine observed gravitational effects. Some of those limitations are discussed herein.

     A study such as this covering such a broad range of topics cannot possibly have every section fully referenced for all the work that has been done along these lines. The works of many authors who have written in the fields mentioned herein were not referenced because their theoretical studies did not match this model. There are numerous scientists who are not satisfied with the current standard models. Their work is virtually never published in “main stream” journals. The numerous alternative publications make it difficult to track down and reference all relevant work. If some of this work has appeared in print, authors are invited to send copies of their work, with its reference, so that reference can be made in future editions. Getting the same answer using a different approach does not count. Getting a similar answer using the same approach may be referenced in future editions if considered appropriate.

   Standard models are so entrenched into mainstream physics that it is not possible to publish simple articles refuting any aspect of them. The only way round the standard models is to show how all aspects of nuclear, quantum and relativistic physics are related in a single continuum. That has been the major objective of this manuscript. Part of the philosophy behind it was that it is the structure of particles that gives them their properties. Get their structures correct and their wave properties and fields will take care of themselves.

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