## FROM ITS SMALLEST SUB ATOMIC

PARTICLES TO ITS LARGE SCALE STRUCTURE

### The universe is amazingly simple to understand!

Ever wanted to understand the universe, but thought modern physics was too difficult to follow? You are right! But it is only difficult because the “experts” have got much of it wrong. Most use maths without understanding the physics. This common sense approach makes it much easier to understand. It describes the physics first, and then uses the simplest maths required to support it.

Einstein’s gravity is an example. He used complex maths to derive his field equations from his general relativity theory. It matched gravity tests. Nobody knew why! It was generally regarded as perhaps the most complex topic in modern physics.

That changed in 2021 when an Institute of Physics (UK) journal published a paper:

Physical Explanations of Einstein’s Gravity.

Authored by Dr Vivian NE Robinson, it can be found at:

https://doi.org/10.1088/2399-6528/abee2f

It describes the simple physics that underpins Einstein’s gravity. Easy to follow maths is used to remove the approximations he used and make a more accurate expansion of his work. It has several important messages.

i) Einstein’s gravity is not a complex topic

ii) The “experts” can’t follow his mathematics

iii) Their derivation of “black holes” from his field equations required them to make three maths mistakes

iv) The “black hole” images that have been detected are the exact solution to his gravity theory associated with massive objects.

v) The reason why black holes are not physically possible is easy to understand.

What was once regarded as one of the physical world’s most complex topics has been simplified to the stage where, with a little tuition, some good high school matriculants could calculate some Einstein gravity effects faster and more accurately than experts using his field equations. Some would have no difficulty in using common sense to explain why black holes are not physically possible.

vi) Just because the “experts” say the science is settled, does not mean they are correct!

ESO Press release No. 1825

The rest of this presentation on the universe follows the same principle. Descriptions of the physics involved are followed by the simplest maths required to show the magnitude of the effect. The match with experiment and observation is much better than the complex standard models!

That approach goes in a continuum from the smallest sub-atomic particles to the large scale structure of the universe. It shows the simple relationship between classical topics like Newtonian mechanics, electromagnetism, and Maxwell’s equations, with quantum mechanics and Einstein’s special and general relativity theories, and nuclear physics.

Newtonian mechanics work well when everything is a continuum. As we get to smaller scales, a stage is reached where continuous structures give way to molecules, atoms and sub-atomic particles. At that level, things are quantized into discrete entities that behave differently from the bulk material. When their structure is understood, those small particles still obey Newtonian mechanics and electromagnetic principles. Effects like quantized electron orbits around atoms and “tunneling” have simple mechanical explanations. It is their structure that makes them behave in apparently complex ways. Their structure also automatically subjects them to Einstein’s special relativity corrections, and introduces another correction that Einstein missed.

In the same manner, Maxwell’s electromagnetic waves also have a smallest component, known as a photon. A photon’s structure gives it its properties. This study shows how everything in the universe depends is interlinked by the structure and properties of photons.

Knowing that, everything in the universe, from the smallest sub-atomic particles to its large-scale structure is common sense. This study is supported by the necessary mathematics<p>

(*Link to How to Build a Universe)

to show the physical effects match observation. It uses only three space dimensions and time, detected stable particles, known, or demonstrated physical principles, and the constants, g, h, ε and µ.

To make it easier to understand the changes post 20th century advanced physics, it helps to know how fundamental physics changed from easy-to-understand classical physics too difficult to understand relativistic and quantum physics. A brief outline of that is given in