Unreality of the Big Bang

The formation of the Big Bang was derived from four factors. The first was knowledge that, under Newton’s gravity, an infinite steady state universe would collapse under the gravity of its huge mass. Under Newton’s shell theorem, the mass of the universe of average density ρ, increases proportional to radius cubed, gravity decreases according to… Continue reading Unreality of the Big Bang

Universe Components

A question that is sometimes asked: “What are the constituents of the universe?”Or “Of what is the universe composed? Standard model practitioners talk about some 61 particles and numerous fields. The reality is very different. Then universe is composed of just two components, entities, stuffs, or what ever your want to call them. One of… Continue reading Universe Components


GRAVITY has been the most difficult topic or force to describe. Newton showed it acted through the inverse square law, but gave no reason for it to act. Einstein refined that to mass distorting space-time to produce gravity. I showed that space and time were distorted by photon redshift. That still does not explain gravity’s origin.

Gravity is the first of all the forces to which we are exposed. It operates in free space, where there appears to be nothing. Without a medium that can transmit anything, it was difficult to work out how it could act. How can nothing be changed to give something? It can because “nothing” has interesting properties. Through electric permittivity and magnetic permeability, nothing can support and transmit photons. Photon redshift gives rise to space-time distortion, Einstein’s description of the origins of gravity.

The difficulty is working out how mass can distort electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. Even then, if a way is found, it will only show how photons respond to gravity. Mass responds to gravity in the same manner as do photons. Such mechanism must also show how mass responds the same as photons. That is what “THE COMMON SENSE UNIVERSE“, with a touch of Feynman, describes

The calculations are simple when the correct physics is used. The answers are exact and apply in all circumstances. Whether it is space inside matter or outside matter, gravity is gravity. There are no discontinuities, singularities, black holes or worm holes. There is just gravity, classical gravity. Even Einstein’s general relativity corrections are derived by applying classical Newtonian gravity to aspects of matter.

Chapter 9 of “THE COMMON SENSE UNIVERSE“shows that gravity is caused by the structure and properties of individual nucleons. Their structure and properties also show how easy it is to understand the nature of nuclear binding, the origins of the “strong” force and how to determine the structure and some properties of any nucleus of almost any Z and A.

The nucleons’ physical structures unite the strong nuclear force with electromagnetism, gravity, Einstein’s special relativity corrections and the physical origins of the elementary particles. They all fit together in a simple common sense or rational manner. All in three space dimensions and time, using known physical properties, principles and constants. No mystique or complex calculations required.

The standard model approaches to gravity say it all. Many theories. Much mathematical complexity. No results! A large difficulty comes from trying to fit black holes into any gravity theory. Their prediction comes from mathematicians who can’t follow what can only be described as Einstein’s simple maths. Mathematical predictions don’t work, physical predictions do. The maths are much simpler.

The physical origin of gravity has defied all mathematical theories for many decades. The physical description in “THE COMMON SENSE UNIVERSE” matches observations with simple maths. It is time to bypass the standard mathematics based models and move to common sense physics based models. SOLVING GRAVITY is a large achievement.

Don’t be intimidated by mathematicians who pretend to follow Einstein’s maths and believe in black holes. Move forward with physical theories that work. Get your copy of “THE COMMON SENSE UNIVERSE“and be among the first to explore the new insights into the the universe’s simplicities.