A question that is sometimes asked: “What are the constituents of the universe?”Or “Of what is the universe composed? Standard model practitioners talk about some 61 particles and numerous fields.
The reality is very different. Then universe is composed of just two components, entities, stuffs, or what ever your want to call them. One of them is photons. They are the little packets of electromagnetic energy derived from Maxwell’s equations, predicted by Planck and verified by Einstein. They make up all the mass and energy of the universe. They come in a variety of different frequencies and spins. When traveling in a straight line they are energy. When rotating twice per wavelength, the are matter particles.
The other entity is nothing, that is matter free space. It makes up the universe’s volume. It may seem strange that matter free space, a vacuum, is included in the universe’s makeup. Its role is vital for the universe’s existence. A vacuum, nothing, has properties vital to the existence of photons. It allows them to pass through it at a speed governed by its electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. The important feature is that space’s electric permittivity and magnetic permeability supports photons.
All particles, from the lightest neutrinos through electrons and nucleons to the heaviest “elementary particles”, are composed of photons making two revolutions per wavelength. The rotate about a photon’s magnetic field because it is much stronger than its electric field. The four stable particles protons, neutrons, electrons and neutrinos are all composed of just one rotating photon
Some elementary particles, e.g., muons, are also just one rotating photon. Most others are two or more rotating photons. Those composite particles all have very short half-lives varying down to ≈ 10–23 seconds. That is just long enough for a photon to make a few rotations before decaying to lower energy rotations photons, i.e., other particles, or photons.
Eventually they will all decay to one or more proton, neutron, electron or neutrino, or their anti-particles, plus photons. They serve no purpose in the properties of the universe.
As for the fields, the electric field is transmitted through the electric permittivity and the magnetic field through the magnetic permeability. The only other field is gravity. It is generated by the rotating photons that are the mass. It is transmitted through space by the the electric permittivity of space.
The radial differential of the electric permittivity from the centre of a massive object gives Newton’s inverse square law as a first approximation and Einstein’s field equations as a second approximation. The exact solution predicts the donut shapes that are observed at the centre of galaxies.
All other fields are mathematical requirements needed to get the complex standard model to work. They do not exist in reality. What us often referred to as “quantum foam” is the variations in electric permittivity and magnetic permeability very close to the nucleons.
More details in “THE COMMON SENSE UNIVERSE”