The formation of the Big Bang was derived from four factors.

The first was knowledge that, under Newton’s gravity, an infinite steady state universe would collapse under the gravity of its huge mass. Under Newton’s shell theorem, the mass of the universe of average density ρ, increases proportional to radius cubed, gravity decreases according to radius squared. An infinite steady state universe would experience infinite gravity and collapse in on itself.

The second was Einstein’s introduction of a universal constant to prevent the universe from collapsing under his gravity theory. He considered only a finite universe, which would collapse under any gravity theory.

The third was Hubble’s observation that light from more distant galaxies was red shifted. That was interpreted as the universe was expanding. An expanding universe would not necessarily collapse.

Then came the detection of cosmic microwave background radiation. It was interpreted as the residual from the Big Bang that formed the universe.

There was no counter argument that Newton’s inverse square law and shell theorem both predicted an infinite steady state universe would collapse. All future observations were fitted to the Big Bang and expanding universe theory.

There are serious flaws in the above. They depend upon Newton’s shell theorem. Forwarded in 1687, it has never been shown to be incorrect. It physics is straight forward. All the mass in a large body acts gravitationally as if it were concentrated at its centre. La Place and Poisson showed the same applied for distribution of separate masses. It applies for any gravity theory.

The accepted Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations is that gravity is stronger than inverse square. When the Schwarzschild metric is applied to Newton’s shell theorem, it predicts that gravity becomes infinitely strong at a finite distance. For the proposed average density of ≈ 6 nucleons per cubic meter, that radius would be about 10 billion light years.

The universe could not expand beyond 10 billion light years because the gravitational attraction at that distance would be infinite. Hubble’s constant suggests the universe’s radius is almost 14 billion light years. That is a serious problem. How can the universe expand beyond 10 billion light years?

When gravity is weaker than inverse square law, mass still increases as radius cubed. But gravity gets weaker with increasing mass. No matter what the mass or density, gravitational attraction at an infinite distance is zero. An infinite steady state universe will not collapse.

There is a very satisfactory explanation for the observed redshift that is based upon the measured Hubble’s constant. It matches the redshift versus distance curve of the relativistic redshift associated with an expanding universe up to about redshift z = 0.4.

Beyond z = 0.4, the observed SNe1a magnitudes versus redshift points are very close to the curve predicted under this infinite steady state universe. The universe isn’t even expanding, let alone expanding at an accelerating rate.

The exact solution to Einstein’s gravity shows how gravity reverses entropy and recycles fused heavy elements back to hydrogen. Quasars send them back into the surrounding space. The universe will last forever, slowly changing on a local scale, while remaining steady on a vast scale.

More details in chapter 11 of “THE COMMON SENSE UNIVERSE“