The idea that all matter was composed of small indivisible particles was first forwarded in India (Ayurvedic science) about 900 BCE. It was introduced into Europe by Democritus about 400 BCE. Islamic scholars such as Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan (Gerber – died 815 CE) made significant use of the idea was by synthesized new chemicals. It was introduced into modern science by John Dalton in the early 19th century CE. Complete acceptance of the atomic theory of matter was given by Einstein when he observed the Brownian motion of pollen grains in water early in the 20th century .
By the late 19th century the atomic theory was widely accepted. Atoms were believed to be indivisible. In 1897 JJ Thomson became the first person to “split the atom” when he showed that electrons were particles that were emitted from atoms. In 1911 Ernest Rutherford showed that protons were components within the atom. In 1932, James Chadwick showed that neutrons were also part of atoms. Spin conservation led Enrico Fermi to postulate the existence of neutrinos. They were detected by a team headed by Cowan and Reines in 1956.
All the constituent particles of atoms had been detected. Chemists made rapid progress in determining the properties of atoms and synthesizing new materials. The structure and properties of protons and neutrons that made up the nuclei of atoms was not well understood. Yukawa predicted the possibility of nuclear binding by particle exchange. Gell-man and Zweig predicted the existence of quarks and their interchange to explain the interchange between protons and neutrons. Those theories had some initial successes and were incorporated into the “standard model” of particle physics.
To gain more information, physicists built particle accelerators. One of their objective was to smash protons and nuclei into other protons and nuclei. By detecting the products, they hoped to find out the constituents of the nucleons and how they bound to form nuclei. The results were confusing. Higher energy particle accelerators were built. By the end of the 20th century some 200 separate “elementary” particles were identified. The results were evaluated under the standard model. The situation remained confusing. The introduction of more orders of quarks held together by gluons of different colors and flavors did not help. A compete re-appraisal of the theory, not higher energy particle accelerators, is required.
The only stable particles detected are electrons, protons, neutrons and neutrinos. Under this rotating photon model, all particles are made up of photons of the appropriate energy making two revolutions per wavelength. This model also showed the origins of Einstein’s special relativity corrections of mass and time with increasing speed.
When protons and neutrons are accelerated to high energies, their speed and mass increase and their time scale slows down as the rotating photon spirals its way through space. When they are stopped in a collision they have excess mass for their rest time frame. They have to rid themselves of that mass. That is done by a combination of emitting linear photons, bremsstrahlung, or having outer oscillations jolted out. Protons’ outer oscillations are P/9, rest mass ≈ 105 MeV/c2. They have the same properties as muons, spin ½ and +ve or –ve change. Their emission changes the polarity of the nucleon. That automatically generates N/27 oscillations, rest mass ≈ 34 MeV/c2, spin ½ and can be +ve, 0 or –ve charged.
A charged muon with a neutral N/27 oscillation has mass ≈ 139 MeV, spin 0 or 1, the properties of a charged pion. A charged muon with an oppositely charged N/27 oscillation has some binding energy that causes the combination to have a lower mass. The particle will have zero charge, spin 0 or 1, the properties of a neutral pion that has mass ≈ 135 MeV/c2. Energetic nucleons can replace the oscillations that are jolted out.
The process continues as the nucleons cascade through a series of quasi “stable” states until they reach the stable rest mass of a proton or neutron. The higher is the energy of the nucleons at collision, the greater the number of particles that can be emitted and form a “new” particle. Similarly the mass of the residual nucleon is initially higher and emitted particles can temporarily attach to it.
That there is some order in that chaos is not surprising. The process is one of adding energy, and hence mass, to a nucleon as its time scale is slowed down. When stopped, the nucleon has to rid itself of the excess mass it has for its rest time frame. Muons and pions are part of the rest structure of nucleons. So too are the P/1 and P/3 harmonic oscillations.
The remainder are induced into the nucleons when they are accelerated to high energy and stopped. They are not present in the nucleons at rest.
Evaluating particle accelerator results under the “standard model” has produced much confusion. Evaluating them under this model may reveal some sub structure in the harmonic oscillations. Particle physics experiments have positively shown that nucleons plus energy (photons) gives an array of particles that decay to photons and leave the original particle. Nothing else is stable! It is suggested that nothing in any of their experiments has shown this model is not correct.