Some people are confused about when classical physics applies and when quantum physics applies. When there is a continuum in a material, whatever that is, classical mechanics applies. Dividing things into smaller sections reaches a limit where individual molecules are detected. A molecule by itself behaves differently from when it is in a large collection of molecules. One water molecule is quantized because it is the smallest entity that retains water properties. That is when quantum mechanics replaces classical mechanics.
In turn a water molecule can be divided into two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Separately those components don’t behave like water. Further dividing the atoms into electrons around nuclei gives components that have no resemblance to water. The realm of quantum mechanics is applied to the smallest particles.
Classical mechanics also merges into quantized mechanics as the entities being studied change at a boundary. In that regard, water’s surface tension is a quantized effect. In bulk water, molecules are acted upon by other molecules in all three dimensions. Molecules on the surface are only acted upon by other molecules in two dimensions. That gives surface molecules different properties from those of the bulk. Although surface tension is different from bulk water behavior, it still obeys Newton’s laws of motion.
An unfortunate aspect of quantum mechanics is that its early development occurred when people had no idea of the structure of particles such as electrons. Theorists described them as waves with the point particle having a probability of being within the wave’s extent. Waves can be mathematically manipulated in many ways. It is easy to get a match with observation, justifying quantum mechanics success. Quantum mechanics developed into wave mechanics.
“THE COMMON SENSE UNIVERSE” treats all particles as particles. Within their structure, classical rules of Newtonian mechanics, electromagnetism and Maxwell’s equations still apply. Using only those principles, what are considered peculiar quantum mechanical effects like tunneling, quantized orbits, de Broglie wavelength and electron diffraction, and even particle and photon spins, have simple classical explanations. The secret is to know their structure. It becomes much easier to understand what is physically occurring considerably simplifies the maths.
Eminent quantum physicists use words to the effect: “When you think you know what is going on in quantum mechanics, you are wrong“. That is because they are manipulating waves. The secret to quantum mechanics is knowing the structure of the particles. When a particle’s structure and circumstances are known, there actions can be predicted.
The structure of individual particles gives them fixed properties. They are nothing like points or billiard balls. They don’t behave anything like what would be expected from billiard balls.The electrons’ zitterbewegung gives them a high frequency charge variation in time and position. It is not always possible to determine the exact starting orientations of either projectile or target electrons. Probability mechanics is the only way to go.
Within that limitation, applying Newtonian or electromagnetic effects to the particles in their environment has a predictable response. Some of those predictable effects are given THE COMMON SENSE UNIVERSE.
Know the structure of the individual particles and it becomes much easier to understand their apparently weird quantum behavior. Their structure still obeys classical concepts like Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetism. That is how classical mechanics merges with quantum mechanics. The inverse square law of electric charges still apply. It is the nature of a particle’s charge distribution that changes its behavior, not a change in the laws of electric attraction.
This opens a whole new way of studying the universe at the sub-atomic particle level. Get your copy of “THE COMMON SENSE UNIVERSE“ and be one of the first to explore the potentials of this new approach!